A similar entry appears in the Wheel of Time Companion confirming the information available in the main story arc.
Author: Val a'Shain
Also called Artur Paendrag Tanreall (AHR-tuhr PAY-ehn-DRAG than-REE-ahl)
Note: All information can be found in the World of Robert Jordan's "The Wheel of Time" chapters 11 and 12 unless indicated otherwise.
Artur Paendrag Tanreall arguably is the historical character in the Wheel of Time who has had the largest impact on the main story. His life made the world tremble and his death unleashed a war not seen since the Trolloc Wars over a thousand years earlier. He is one of the few historical characters we know the background of. Because he has hardly taken part in the main story, I am going to deviate from the standard character summary a bit. The obvious link to the Arthurian legend is material for another article however, as is the parallel with Charlemagne (or maybe I am just the only one who sees that :P).
Hawkwing is tall, hook-nosed with dark, deep-set eyes. He carries a sword named Justice (TGH, Ch. 47).
- In FY 912 Artur is born as the son of Mailinde Paendrag Lyndhal, Queen of Shandalle, and Myrdin Paendrag Maregore. He is their heir.
- In FY 935 Artur marries his first wife, Lady Amaline Tagora. She bears him four children: twins Modair and Amira in FY 942 and a son and daughter we do not know the names of.
- In FY 937 a Black Fever epidemic takes both Artur's parents. He becomes King of Shandalle.
- In FY 939 Guaire Amalasan proclaims himself the Dragon Reborn. He would ravage the world for four years, threatening to take the Stone itself, in what was called the War of the Second Dragon.
- In FY 940 Artur sends his first army against Guaire Amalasan. In the two years that follow, Artur proves he is a match for the Dragon and gains his name Hawkwing.
- In FY 943 Hawkwing wins an impossible victory over Amalasan's forces and the false Dragon is taken captive. Artur takes his army to Tar Valon to deliver the Dragon to the White Tower. Amalasan was gentled there. Two of his generals tried to break him out, however, almost succeeding in taking the Tower. It is unclear what exactly happened, but it is assumed that Hawkwing helped turn back this attack. The Amyrlin at that time, Bonwhin, was not pleased with Hawkwing's army in Tar Valon territory. This could have been the beginning of the animosity between Hawkwing and the White Tower.
- In the summer of FY 943, Caembarin, Khodomar, and Tova attacked Shandalle. Bonwhin is suspected to be behind this move but if there is evidence of this it is buried deep in the Tower archives. This attack marks the beginning of what was later called the Wars of Consolidation.
- In FY 943-963 Hawkwing conquers the Westlands and shows himself to be one of the great captains. All land between the Aryth Ocean and the Spine of the World, except for the lands held by Tar Valon, is now under his control. Hawkwing does not lose a single battle in those twenty years.
- Artur's son Modair was killed in battle in FY 959.
- In FY 961 Artur's wife Amaline and his remaining three children are poisoned. Artur becomes a hard man. He shields himself from human emotion. Some of his harshest decrees are from the period between FY 961 and FY 965, known to historians as 'the Black Years' or the 'Years of Silent Rage'.
- In FY 964 Hawkwing invades the Aiel Waste. This is one of the few defeats he ever suffered. After his return from the Waste, Hawkwing meets Tamika.
- Hawkwing marries Tamika in FY 965. They have three or four children together, including Luthair Paendrag Mondwin. None of them would survive Hawkwing.
- Jalwin Moerad appears at Hawkwing's court in FY 973. He quickly gains influence with the High King. Hawkwing dismisses Aes Sedai from his service soon after.
- Hawkwing's armies lay siege to Tar Valon. The siege will not be lifted until after his death.
- FY 986-7 Trollocs invade form the Blight. Hawkwing beats them so severely that their activity was diminished for at least fifty years after. The final battle of that war was fought at Talidar. A monument was later erected on the site of the battle with the names of the soldiers who died on it. The monument was destroyed during the War of the Hundred Years.
- Tamika, Hawkwing's second wife, dies in FY 987.
- FY 992 Hawkwing sends off a fleet led by his son Luthair Paendrag Mondwin to conquer the lands on the other side of the Aryth Ocean.
- In FY 993 another fleet lead by one of Hawkwing's daughters sets sail for the lands beyond the Aiel Waste (Shara). This fleet is assumed to be destroyed.
- In FY 994, at the age of eighty-two, the High King Artur Hawkwing dies. The war over his succession started almost immediately after his death. None of his blood survived. This war would be known as the War of the Hundred Years and would shatter Hawkwing's empire.
- Hawkwing makes a brief reappearance at the battle of Falme in 998 NE after Mat sounds the Horn of Valere (TGH, Ch. 47).
Loial mentions Hawkwing being a ta'veren when he explains the concept to Rand (TEotW, Ch. 36). Siuan and Moiraine discuss it, too, in Fal Dara. Moiraine thinks Rand, Mat and Perrin are stronger than Hawkwing was (TGH, Ch. 5). He is one of the few ta'veren we read about in the books and his case seems to be the best documented. We do not get to see how this worked to his advantage though.
During most of his reign, Artur was well loved by the population of the lands he ruled. Besides being a great commander, he seems to have introduced some new techniques in ruling a country. He set up a system of courts and a civil guard to keep order. He was widely regarded as a good king who brought peace and justice to the lands. He promoted and appointed people on their merits instead of their births. This did not make him very popular with some of the noble Houses. Several times they rebelled against him and every time the rebellion was suppressed, once even by the population before Hawkwing arrived with his troops. Stories about his rule survived for over a thousand years.
With the White Tower
Over the course of his life Hawkwing's relation with Aes Sedai and the White Tower changes repeatedly. There is reason to believe that his first wife Amaline was Tower trained, even if she could not channel. This at least suggest a favourable opinion of the White Tower on Artur's part. His first confrontation with the Tower comes in FY 943 when he takes his army to Tar Valon controlled land to deliver the false Dragon Guaire Amalasan for trial. The Amyrlin Bonwhin Meraighdin (raised from the Red Ajah and Amyrlin from FY 939-992) was not pleased with foreign soldiers on Tar Valon soil. She sent him a message saying that his troops had five days to rest and to move out of Tar Valon-controlled area immediately thereafter. In the mean time, Guaire Amalasan was tried and gentled. Two of his best generals attacked the Tower and tried to break him out. Tar Valon would not have held if Hawkwing had not supported them, as the Tower was totally unprepared for such an attack. Bonwhin never forgave Artur for taking his army to Tar Valon or for needing his assistance in defeating the attack by Guaire Amalasan's generals. It is suspected that Bonwhin had a hand in the attack of Caembarin, Khodomar, and Tova on Shandalle later that year. There were no attempts by the White Tower to negotiate in the conflict even after Artur requested it, which is highly unusual. If Bonwhin did, her plans backfired. This war started the Consolidation, which would see Artur take all the lands between the Aryth Ocean and the Spine of the World.
However Bonwhin may have felt, Hawkwing made no move against the Tower during the Consolidation. Some credit his wife for this. In FY 954 Hawkwing and the Tower even seem to make peace when he accepts an Aes Sedai advisor, Chowin Tsao of the Green Ajah. Other nations still opposing Hawkwing also had Aes Sedai advisors though. Apparently Hawkwing accepts Tar Valon's neutrality. For unknown reasons, there is a break between FY 962 and FY 967, after which relations with the Tower improve again. By FY 974, Aes Sedai hold may posts in Hawkwing's empire. As many as a third of his provinces are governed by them. FY 974 marks another swing in the relations between the Tower and Hawkwing. Some say that Hawkwing uncovered evidence of the Tower's involvements in rebellions against his rule. Others link the change in Hawkwing's attitude to his new advisor, Jalwin Moerad. Moerad is openly anti-Aes Sedai, a position not many would have dared taking before his arrival at Hawkwing's court. The position of Hawkwing's second wife, Tamika, is also unclear. Relations with the Tower can at best be described as cool, though. Whatever his reasons, by FY 975, Hawkwing had put a price on the head of any Aes Sedai who would not denounce the Tower, and his armies had laid siege on the city of Tar Valon itself. Even after Hawkwing's death and the deposing and [[stilling[[ of Bonwhin, Artur's determined general, Souran Maravaile, continued the siege. Despite the new Amyrlin Deane Aryman's (raised from the Blue Ajah) best efforts to undo the damage Bonwhin had done, it was Souran's lover Ishara, the first Queen of Andor and his future wife, who convinced him to lift the siege. Had she not succeeded, the Tower would probably have fallen shortly thereafter.
With Other Characters
There is some evidence that Ishamael was not bound like the other Forsaken were. When he visits one of Rand's dream he brags about this (see quotes). It is suspected he was Artur's mysterious advisor Jalwin Moerad, who counseled Hawkwing to lay siege on Tar Valon and suggested the expeditions to Seanchan and Shara to him.
Mat is one of the few living characters who has met Hawkwing. At the battle of Falme, Hawkwing leads the Heroes of the Horn after Mat summoned them (TGH, Ch. 47). Later, Mat also recalls memories from other men who lived in Hawkwing's time, Culain for example (TFoH, Ch. 3; CoT, Ch. 3).
- A statue of Artur Hawkwing was once erected in what is now Andor. It was paid for and built by his citizens, even if he did not approve of it. Elyas, Egwene, and Perrin camp near the remains on their way to Caemlyn. The site was supposed to become Hawkwing's new capital, but the city he planned was never built and it is said that Hawkwing died the day the statue was finished (TEotW, Ch. 29).
- Hawkwing's banner was a golden hawk in flight. This banner is still in use in Seanchan (TGH, Ch. 42).
- Artur Hawkwing is tied to the Horn of Valere. He appears to fight the Seanchan (supposedly his own decendants!) after Mat sounds the Horn at Falme. It seems he leads the other heroes (TGH, Ch. 47).
- Hawkwing tried to establish a calendar based on the founding of his empire (FF, from founding). It was never generally accepted.
- Rand obtains a new sword, the scabbard painted with a long sinuous red and gold dragon. It has been suggested that this is Hawkwing's sword (TGS, Ch. 1).
- The Red Ajah: Bonwhin was, after Tetsuan, (stilled during the Trolloc Wars for betraying Manetheren out of jealousy for their Queen Eldrene ay Ellan ay Carlan) the second Amyrlin raised from the Red Ajah to be deposed and stilled, a sentence only given those two and Siuan Sanche. Not a single Red has been raised Amyrlin between Bonwhin and Elaida. This is a fact that is hard to swallow for some Reds, and it may have been a motivation for Elaida to try to depose Siuan (TGH, Ch. 5).
- The War of the Hundred years: A series of wars between parties who wanted to claim Hawkwing's throne. They lasted for well over a century and depopulated large parts of the Westlands. Many records were destroyed in this war and Darkfriend activity reached a peak. A semi-religious order arose during these years called the Children of the Light. Initially it was a peaceful organisation, but in the violent world around them, they turned into a military organisation. The reasons for this are lost to us (The World of Robert Jordan's "The Wheel of Time").
- Andor: Ishara, daughter of Endara Casalain, Hawkwing's governor of the province of Andor, was the first to realize that none of the contestants for his throne had the power to take it all. She concentrated on carving out the nation of Andor, of which she was the first Queen. In the New Era, Andor would become one of the most powerful nations, even if it did not escape the slow decline of mankind in the Westlands totally. It is said that Ishara convinced Souran Maravaile to break the siege of Tar Valon because she realized she would need the Tower's support to survive the succession wars (The World of Robert Jordan's "The Wheel of Time").
- Seanchan: Luthair did reach Seanchan and succeeded in founding a dynasty that would conquer the entire continent. The Seanchan Empress is a direct descendant of Hawkwing and still claims his throne. The Seanchan staged an invasion in 998 NE, trying to regain what they see as their lands. The landed at Falme where an organisation called the [[Watchers over the Waves] has been waiting for their return. Other than that, the Seanchan are not pleased with the Watchers over the Waves; we know very little about them (TGH, Ch. 29). The first attack is beaten back at Falme, but the second invasion further south seems to have taken root too firmly to throw back.
- Mayene: The Firsts of Mayene claim to be direct descendants of Artur Hawkwing through his grandson Tyrn. It is unclear who Tyrn's parents were, and even if this claim is valid. Several sources claim that none of Hawkwing's blood survived him, except for Luthair. Of course, for a descendant of Hawkwing during the War of the Hundred Years, it was almost guaranteed to shorten your lifespan dramatically to admit your heritage. Whatever the truth of the claim, Berelain sur Paendrag Paeron, the current First of Mayene, still uses his name.
"A thousand years later I sent the Trollocs ravening south, and for three centuries they savaged the world. Those blind fools in Tar Valon said I was beaten in the end, but the Second Covenant, the Covenant of the Ten Nations, was shattered beyond remaking, and who was left to oppose me then? I whispered in Artur Hawkwing's ear, and the length and breadth of the land Aes Sedai died. I whispered again, and the High King sent his armies across the Aryth Ocean, across the World Sea, and sealed two dooms. The doom of his dream of one land and one people, and a doom yet to come. At his deathbed I was there when his councilors told him only Aes Sedai could save his life. I spoke, and he ordered his councilors to the stake. I spoke, and the High King's last words were to cry that Tar Valon must be destroyed.
"When men such as these could not stand against me, what chance do you have, a toad crouching beside a forest puddle. You will serve me, or you will dance on Aes Sedai strings until you die. And then you will be mine. The dead belong to me!"
(Ishamael/Ba'alzamon to Rand in his dreams; The Eye of the World, Chapter 14)
"Artur Hawkwing brought peace and justice, but he did it with fire and sword. A child could ride alone with a bag of gold from the Aryth Ocean to the Spine of the World and never have a moment's fear, but the High King's justice was as hard as that rock there for anyone who challenged his power, even if it was just by being who they were, or by people thinking they were a challenge. The common folk had peace, and justice, and full bellies, but he laid a twenty-year siege to Tar Valon and put a price of a thousand gold crowns on the head of every Aes Sedai."
"I thought you didn't like Aes Sedai," Egwene said.
Elyas gave a wry smile. "Doesn't matter what I like, girl. Artur Hawkwing was a proud fool. An Aes Sedai healer could have saved him when he took sick -- or was poisoned, as some say -- but every Aes Sedai still alive was penned up behind the Shining Walls, using all their Power to hold off an army that lit up the night with their campfires. He wouldn't have let one near him, anyway. He hated Aes Sedai as much as he hated the Dark One."
(Elyas on Hawkwing's struggle with the Tower; The Eye of the World, Chapter 19)
"The Pattern pays no heed to human plans, Siuan. With all our scheming, we forgot what we were dealing with. Ta'veren. Elaida is wrong. Artur Paendrag Tanreall was never this strongly ta'veren. The Wheel will weave the Pattern around this young man as it wills, whatever our plans." (Moiraine to Siuan in Fal Dara; The Great Hunt, Chapter 5)
"Are you suggesting, Daughter," the Amyrlin Seat said, "that Artur Hawkwing's armies, or rather their descendants, might actually return after a thousand years?"
"There are rumors of war on Almoth Plain and Toman Head,' Moiraine said slowly. "And Hawkwing sent two of his sons, as well as armies. If they did survive in whatever lands they found, there could well be many descendants of Hawkwing. Or none."
(Verin bringing up the possiblility of Hawkwing's armies returning from across the Aryth Ocean; The Great Hunt, Chapter 7).
"We will reach the field of Talidar in three or four days at this rate," Ingtar said as they rode. "Artur Hawkwing's greatest single victory, when the Halfmen led the Trollocs out of the Blight against him. Six days and nights, it lasted, and when it was done, the Trollocs fled back into the Blight and never dared challenge him again. He raised a monument there to his victory, a spire a hundred spans high. He would not let them put his own name on it, but rather the names of every man who fell, and a golden sun at the top, symbol that there the Light had triumphed over the Shadow."
"I would like to see that," Loial said. "I have never heard of this monument."
Ingtar was silent for a moment, and when he spoke his voice was quiet. "It is not there any longer, Builder. When Hawkwing died, the ones who fought over his empire could not bear to leave a monument to a victory of his, even if it did not mention his name. There's nothing left but the mound where it stood. In three or four days we can see that, at least." His tone did not allow much conversation afterwards.
(Ingtar to the company pursuing Padan Fain; The Great Hunt, Chapter 10)
Justice shone like a mirror in Artur Hawkwing's gauntleted fist. "I have fought by your side times beyond number, Lews Therin, and faced you as many more. The Wheel spins us out for its purposes, not ours, to serve the Pattern. I know you, if you do not know yourself. We will drive these invaders out for you." His warhorse pranced, and he looked around, frowning. "Something is wrong here. Something holds me." Suddenly he turned his sharp-eyed gaze on Rand. "You are here. Have you the banner?" A murmur ran through those behind him.
"Yes." Rand tore open the straps of his saddlebags and pulled out the Dragon's banner. It filled his hands and hung almost to his stallion's knees. The murmur among the heroes rose.
"The Pattern weaves itself around our necks like halters," Artur Hawkwing said. "You are here. The banner is here. The weave of this moment is set. We have come to the Horn, but we must follow the banner. And the Dragon."
(Hawkwing to Rand at Falme; The Great Hunt, Chapter 47)
"Ta'veren," Loial began. Perrin waved at him to stop, but the Ogier could seldom be slowed, much less stopped, when one of his enthusiasms had him in its grip. He was accounted extremely hasty, by the Ogier way of looking at things. Loial pushed his book into a coat pocket and went on, gesturing with his pipe. "All of us, all of our lives, affect the lives of others, Min. As the Wheel of Time weaves us into the Pattern, the life-thread of each of us pulls and tugs at the life-threads around us. Ta'veren are the same, only much, much more so. They tug at the entire Pattern -- for a time, at least -- forcing it to shape around them. The closer you are to them, the more you are affected personally. It's said that if you were in the same room with Artur Hawkwing, you could feel the Pattern rearranging itself. I don't know how true that is, but I've read that it was. But it doesn't only work one way. Ta'veren themselves are woven to a tighter line than the rest of us, with fewer choices." (Loial on ta'veren; The Dragon Reborn, Chapter 2)
"Perhaps," Moiraine said. "Perhaps not. No one knows anything about ta'veren as strong as Rand." For just a moment she sounded vexed at not knowing. "Artur Hawkwing was the most strongly ta'veren of whom any writings remain. And Hawkwing was in no way as strong as Rand." (Moiraine of Rand being ta'veren; The Dragon Reborn, Chapter 8)
She had to keep him talking. "Does it always happen that way? I do not think anyone doubts, say, that Artur Hawkwing conquered an empire. The whole world, or near enough."
"Hawkwing, young Mistress? He made an empire, all right, but do you think he did everything the books and stories and epics say he did? The way they say he did it? Killed the hundred best men of an opposing army, one by one? The two armies just stood there while one of the generals -- a king -- fought a hundred duels?"
"The books say he did."
"There isn't time between sunrise and sunset for one man to fight a hundred duels, girl."
(Thom to Elayne about story-telling and history; The Shadow Rising, Chapter 20)
She raised her eyes to the paintings. One consisted of three wooden panels depicting Bonwhin, the last Red to have been raised to the Amyrlin Seat, a thousand years before, and the reason no Red had worn the stole since. Until Elaida. Bonwhin, tall and proud, ordering Aes Sedai in their manipulations of Artur Hawkwing; Bonwhin, defiant, on the white walls of Tar Valon, under siege by Hawkwing's forces; and Bonwhin, kneeling and humbled, before the Hall of the Tower as they stripped her of stole and staff for nearly destroying the Tower. (Elaida looking at a painting in her study to remind her of the price of failure; The Fires of Heaven, Prologue)
Mat muzzily considered the song he had been singing and grimaced. No one had heard 'Dance with Jak o' the Shadows' since Aldeshar fell; in his head, he could still hear the defiant song rising as the Golden Lions launched their last, futile charge at Artur Hawkwing's encircling army. (Mat recalling an ancient battle; The Fires of Heaven, Chapter 3)
"Ishara brought Souran, my Lord Dragon." Elenia's smile turned briefly indulgent. "Ishara's mother was Endara Casalain, who was Artur Hawkwing's governor here then -- the province was called Andor -- and also the daughter of Joal Ramedar, the last King of Aldeshar. Souran was only... only a general" -- She had been going to say a commoner; he would have wagered on it -- "though Hawkwing's finest, of course. Endara resigned her warrant and knelt to Ishara as Queen." Somehow, Rand did not believe it had happened quite that way, or so smoothly. "They were the worst of times, of course, quite as bad as the Trolloc Wars, I am sure. With Hawkwing dead, every noble thought to become High King. Or High Queen. Ishara knew that no one would be able to take it all, though; there were too many factions, and alliances broke as soon as made. She convinced Souran to raise the siege of Tar Valon, and brought him and as much of his army as he could hold together here." (Elenia on the foundation of Andor; Lord of Chaos, Chapter 26)
"There are many things we must speak of, Morgase, yet I will be brief at this first talk. We Seanchan return to reclaim what was stolen from the heirs of the High King, Artur Paendrag Tanreall." (Suroth to Morgase; A Crown of Swords, Chapter 26)
The White Tower had sent soldiers to any number of wars over the last thousand years, but always in response to a plea for help from at least two thrones, and it always had been their war, not the Tower's. The last time the Tower itself actually declared war had been against Artur Hawkwing. Siuan said that now only a few librarians knew much more than that there was a Law of War. (Egwene thinking on the Tower's involvement in wars; The Path of Daggers, Chapter 19)
He lay beneath the burning sun, holding his side with both hands, trying to keep the last of life from leaking out and wondering whether there was any reason to hold on. Aideshar was finished, after this day's work. A shadow blotted the sun for an instant, and then a tall man in armor crouched beside him, helmet tucked under his arm, dark deep-set eyes framing a hooked nose.
"You fought well against me today, Culain, and many days past," that memorable voice said. "Will you live with me in peace?" With his last breath, he laughed in Artur Hawkwing's face."
(Mat remembering a battle against Artur Hawkwing; Crossroads of Twilight, Chapter 3)